Helpful and Free easy-to-read Legal Guides for Senior Citizens.

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How does a Health Care Proxy work?

 Health Care Proxy

A Health Care Proxy is someone you appoint to make health related decisions for you, in the event you can not.

Who decides that I’m not able to make my own healthcare decisions?

Your attending physician will decide whether you lack the capacity to make health care decisions. The decision is made in writing. A second doctor also must be consulted in the case of decisions to withdraw or withhold life-sustaining treatment.  You will be given notice of these decisions if there is any indication that you can understand it. If you object to this decision or to a decision made by your agent, your objection or decision will prevail unless a court determines that you are unable to make health care decisions.

What if I recover the ability to make my own healthcare decisions?

Your doctor is required to decide whether you can make your own health care decisions and confirm it in writing each time your doctor plans on acting on your agent’s health care decisions. If you have recovered the ability to make your own decisions, your agent will not be able to make any more decision for your unless you again lose the abilities to make them.

How do I complete a Healthcare Proxy?

In New York State, laws set forth the requirements for completing a health care proxy. You must be at least 18 years old and have the capacity to make your own decisions at the time you complete the proxy.

You must state your name and the name of the person you want to act as your agent, and state that your want the agent to have the authority to make health care decisions for you. You also must sign and date your health care proxy in the presence of two adult witnesses who are not names as your agent and have the witnesses sign the proxy. Please note that there are special rules for the execution of a proxy by residents of psychiatric facilities.

Please note that you do not need to have a lawyer draft your health care proxy, however, you may wish to consult with a lawyer for advice about a health care proxy.


When will my Healthcare Proxy end?

You can create a proxy that lasts for a limited period of time by including in the document the dates you want the proxy to be valid. You can also revoke your proxy if you wish and you are competent to do so.

If you have appointed your husband or wife as your agent, and then you divorce or legally separate, the appointment will be revoked unless you specify that you do not wish to revoke it. You should review your proxy periodically to be sure that it continues to reflect your wishes.

Where should I keep my Proxy?

It’s best to give a copy of your proxy to your doctor as well as to the agent named in your proxy. If you revoke your proxy, be sure to notify whomever you gave a copy of the proxy. Upon entering a hospital you may give it to an administrator in charge, as your doctor, or attending physician may not be there when you arrive.

What if I don’t want a Healthcare Proxy?

You can’t be required to execute a health care proxy as a condition of receiving health care services or insurance. Also, the lack of a health care proxy or other specific instructions does not crate any presumptions regarding your wishes about health care.

For more information, contact me here>



When Is A Guardian Required for an Adult?

Guardianships are set up to protect and help people in need, such as an elder or loved one unable to care for their own financial or health related well being. When is it required? What is the process?

When is a Guardianship Required For An Adult?

It may be necessary to petition a court to appoint a legal guardian for persons: Who have a physical or mental problem that prevents them from taking care of their own basic needs; Who as a result are in danger of substantial harm; and Who have no person already legally authorized to assume responsibility for them. Under some circumstances, it may be necessary for a court to appoint an emergency guardian, who can act on your behalf during a crisis (such as immediately following a car accident) until you regain your ability to make your own decisions.

Free Will

How is a Guardian Appointed?

The precise procedure will vary to some degree from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. The typical steps are as follows:The person seeking the appointment of a guardian files a petition with the probate court for the jurisdiction where the allegedly legally incapacitated person resides. This petitioner is often a relative, an administrator for a nursing home or health care facility, or other interested person. A petition is ordinarily accompanied by medical affidavits or other sworn statements which evidence the person’s incapacity, and either identifies the person or persons who desire to be named guardian or requests the appointment of a public guardian.The court arranges for any necessary evaluation of the allegedly legally incapacitated person. Often, this will involve the appointment of a “guardian ad litem”, a person who is appointed to provide an independent report to the court on behalf of the allegedly legally incapacitated person.

If appointed, the guardian ad litem will meet with the allegedly incapacitated person, inform that person of his or her legal rights, and report back to the court on the person’s wishes. The guardian ad litem may also speak to the petitioner, to health care providers, and to other interested individuals in order to provide the court with full information about the allegedly incapacitated person’s condition and prognosis. Depending upon state law, the court may appoint a doctor or professional to examine the allegedly incapacitated person. If the person contests the appointment of a guardian, a trial is scheduled during which sworn testimony will be given, and at the conclusion of which the judge will decide if the petitioner met the requisite burden of proof for the appointment of a guardian. The allegedly incapacitated person is ordinarily entitled to appointed counsel, if unable to afford a private attorney.If the allegedly incapacitated person consents to the petition, or is unable to respond to inquiries due to disability, the court will hold a hearing at which witnesses will provide sworn testimony to support the allegations in the petition. If the evidentiary basis is deemed sufficient, the guardian will be appointed.If a guardian is appointed, the judge will issue the guardian legal documents (often called “letters of authority”) permitting the guardian to act on behalf of the legally incapacitated person.What Are a Guardian’s Duties?The guardian makes decisions about how the person lives, including their residence, health care, food, and social activity. The guardian is supposed to consider the wishes of the incapacitated person, as well as their previously established valued, when making these living decisions. The guardian is intended to monitor the legally incapacitated person, to make sure that the person lives in the most appropriate, least restrictive environment possible, with appropriate food, clothing, social opportunities, and medical care.A guardian may be required to post a bond, unless the requirement is waived by the court. In most jurisdictions where bond is required, waivers are routine.

What’s the purpose of court supervision?

The court supervises the guardian’s choices on behalf of the ward. After the initial appointment of a guardian, an initial review is usually scheduled, followed by annual reports by the guardian to the court. The purpose of this supervision is to ensure that the legally incapacitated person is in fact benefiting from the most appropriate, least restrictive living environment possible, with appropriate food, clothing, social opportunities, and medical care.

Avoiding Guardianship:

It is possible to avoid the necessity of a guardianship through estate planning. A good estate plan will include a medical power of attorney which will enable a trusted individual to make health care decisions for you in the event of incapacity, and a general durable power of attorney to permit a trusted individual to manage your personal affairs. To a considerable extent, those documents can specify how you wish to live, and how you wish to be treated, in the event of disability – whereas a court or guardian may make decisions with which you would disagree. In most cases, when these documents have been executed in accord with the laws of your state, it will not be necessary for your loved ones to seek the appointment of a guardian or conservator should something happen to you – something that can be cumbersome and emotionally taxing at an already difficult time.

Son Must Pay for Mother’s Care Under Filial Responsibility

A Pennsylvania appeals court holds that a son is required to pay for his mother’s care under the state’s filial responsibility law even though the mother does not have outstanding medical bills and the son claims he had an abusive childhood. Eori v. Eori (Pa. Super. Ct., No. 1342 WDA 2014, Aug. 7, 2015).
Embed from Getty Images
Joseph Eori is attorney-in-fact for his mother, Dolly Eori, who requires 24-hour care.  Ms. Eori lives with Mr. Eori, and her medical and caregiving expenses exceed her income.

Mr. Eori filed a complaint on behalf of his mother seeking filial support from his brother, Joshua Ryan. Mr. Ryan objected, arguing, among other things, that his mother was not indigent because she did not have outstanding medical bills and that he had an abusive childhood. Pennsylvania’s filial responsibility law negates the support obligation if the parent abandoned the child for a 10-year period. The trial court granted the petition for support, and Mr. Ryan appealed.

The Pennsylvania Superior Court affirms, holding that Mr. Ryan is required to provide support to his mother. The court agrees with the trial court’s decision that the filial responsibility law doesn’t require a showing of unpaid bills or liabilities to justify a claim. In addition, the court affirms the trial court’s ruling that while Mr. Ryan may not have had an ideal childhood, there was no evidence that his mother abandoned him.

For the full text of this decision, click here.

Q: When Do I Need a Guardianship?


The standard under which a person is deemed to require a guardian differs from state to state. And even within some states the standards are different, depending on whether a complete guardianship or only a conservatorship over finances is being sought. Generally a person is judged to be in need of guardianship when he or she shows a lack of capacity to make responsible decisions.

A person cannot be declared incompetent simply because he or she makes irresponsible or foolish decisions, but only if the person is shown to lack the capacity to make sound decisions. For example, a man may not be declared incompetent because he spends money in ways that seem odd to someone else. In addition, a developmental disability or mental illness is not, by itself, enough to have a person declared incompetent.

Guardianship and Conservatorship

Every adult is assumed to be capable of making his or her own decisions unless a court determines otherwise. If an adult becomes incapable of making responsible decisions due to a mental disability, the court will appoint a substitute decision maker, often called a “guardian,” but in some states called a “conservator” or other term. Guardianship is a legal relationship between a competent adult (the “guardian”) and a person who because of incapacity is no longer able to take care of his or her own affairs (the “ward”).

The guardian can be authorized to make legal, financial, and health care decisions for the ward. Depending on the terms of the guardianship and state practices, the guardian may or may not have to seek court approval for various decisions. In many states, a person appointed only to handle finances is called a “conservator.”

Some incapacitated individuals can make responsible decisions in some areas of their lives but not others. In such cases, the court may give the guardian decision making power over only those areas in which the incapacitated person is unable to make responsible decisions (a so-called “limited guardianship”). In other words, the guardian may exercise only those rights that have been removed from the ward and delegated to the guardian.


The standard under which a person is deemed to require a guardian differs from state to state. In some states the standards are different, depending on whether a complete guardianship or a conservatorship over finances only is being sought. Generally a person is judged to be in need of guardianship when he or she shows a lack of capacity to make responsible decisions. A person cannot be declared incompetent simply because he or she makes irresponsible or foolish decisions, but only if the person is shown to lack the capacity to make sound decisions. For example, a person may not be declared incompetent simply because he spends money in ways that seem odd to someone else. Also, a developmental disability or mental illness is not, by itself, enough to declare a person incompetent.


In most states, anyone interested in the proposed ward’s well-being can request a guardianship. An attorney is usually retained to file a petition for a hearing in the probate court in the proposed ward’s county of residence. Protections for the proposed ward vary greatly from state to state, with some simply requiring that notice of the proceeding be provided and others requiring the proposed ward’s presence at the hearing. The proposed ward is usually entitled to legal representation at the hearing, and the court will appoint an attorney if the allegedly incapacitated person cannot afford a lawyer.

At the hearing, the court attempts to determine if the proposed ward is incapacitated and, if so, to what extent the individual requires assistance. If the court determines that the proposed ward is indeed incapacitated, the court then decides if the person seeking the role of guardian will be a responsible guardian.

A guardian can be any competent adult — the ward’s spouse, another family member, a friend, a neighbor, or a professional guardian (an unrelated person who has received special training). A competent individual may nominate a proposed guardian through a durable power of attorney in case she ever needs a guardian.

The guardian need not be a person at all — it can be a non-profit agency or a public or private corporation. If a person is found to be incapacitated and a suitable guardian cannot be found, courts in many states can appoint a public guardian, a publicly financed agency that serves this purpose. In naming someone to serve as a guardian, courts give first consideration to those who play a significant role in the ward’s life — people who are both aware of and sensitive to the ward’s needs and preferences. If two individuals wish to share guardianship duties, courts can name co-guardians.

Reporting Requirements

Courts often give guardians broad authority to manage the ward’s affairs. In addition to lacking the power to decide how money is spent or managed, where to live and what medical care he or she should receive, wards also may not have the right to vote, marry or divorce, or carry a driver’s license. Guardians are expected to act in the best interests of the ward, but given the guardian’s often broad authority, there is the potential for abuse. For this reason, courts hold guardians accountable for their actions to ensure that they don’t take advantage of or neglect the ward.

The guardian of the property inventories the ward’s property, invests the ward’s funds so that they can be used for the ward’s support, and files regular, detailed reports with the court. A guardian of the property also must obtain court approval for certain financial transactions. Guardians must file an annual account of how they have handled the ward’s finances. In some states guardians must also give an annual report on the ward’s status. Guardians must offer proof that they made adequate residential arrangements for the ward, that they provided sufficient health care and treatment services, and that they made available educational and training programs, as needed. Guardians who cannot prove that they have adequately cared for the ward may be removed and replaced by another guardian.

Alternatives to Guardianship

Because guardianship involves a profound loss of freedom and dignity, state laws require that guardianship be imposed only when less restrictive alternatives have been tried and proven to be ineffective. Less restrictive alternatives that should be considered before pursuing guardianship include:

Power of Attorney. A power of attorney is the grant of legal rights and powers by a person (the principal) to another (the agent or attorney-in-fact). The attorney-in-fact, in effect, stands in the shoes of the principal and acts for him or her on financial, business or other matters. In most cases, even when the power of attorney is immediately effective, the principal does not intend for it to be used unless and until he or she becomes incapacitated.

Representative or Protective Payee. This is a person appointed to manage Social Security, Veterans’ Administration, Railroad Retirement, welfare or other state or federal benefits or entitlement program payments on behalf of an individual.

Conservatorship. In some states this proceeding can be voluntary, where the person needing assistance with finances petitions the probate court to appoint a specific person (the conservator) to manage his or her financial affairs. The court must determine that the conservatee is unable to manage his or her own financial affairs, but nevertheless has the capacity to make the decision to have a conservator appointed to handle his or her affairs.

Revocable trust. A revocable or “living” trust can be set up to hold an older person’s assets, with a relative, friend or financial institution serving as trustee. Alternatively, the older person can be a co-trustee of the trust with another individual who will take over the duties of trustee should the older person become incapacitated.

For more information visit or contact me at 212-268-8200 for a free initial consultation.




Another case handled by Brian A. Raphan, P.C. was on the Cover Page of the New York Law Journal last week.

I was appointed as Special Referee by the Supreme Court of the State of New York to perform a forensic review of Nassau County attorney Martha Brosius’ handling of a senior citizen’s financial affairs. Brian uncovered many undocumented and improper financial transactions and filed his detailed analysis to the Court.  As a result of my report, criminal actions were commenced against attorney Brosius, which ultimately led to a guilty plea. Brosius now faces 6-12 years behind bars.  Of course, she will lose her license to practice law.  Another win for the good guys!

The article is provided below.

*As appeared Front Page of the New York Law Journal 6/25/15,

By Andrew Denney, The New York Law Journal


A Long Island elder law attorney has admitted to embezzling more than $797,000 from her clients over a four-year period, the Queens District Attorney’s Office announced on Tuesday.

elder abuse, district attorney

Martha Brosius, 52, of Brosius & Associates of Great Neck, appeared Tuesday before Acting Supreme Court Justice Helene Gugerty and pleaded guilty to two counts of second-degree grand larceny and one count of scheme to defraud, according to a news release from Queens District Attorney Richard Brown’s Office.

“The defendant has admitted to breaching her fiduciary duty and unjustly enriching herself at the expense of her client,” Brown said in the release. Brosius was indicted for the offenses in 2013. Her clients included a 77-year-old man who had been deemed mentally incapable and for whom Brosius served as legal guardian, as well as two brothers who retained Brosius to sell their deceased father’s estate and establish a special-needs trust for their disabled sister, who was the sole heir to the father’s estate.

Brosius is scheduled to appear before Gugerty on Aug. 12 for sentencing. Gugerty has indicated that her prison sentence would range between four and 12 years. Brosius is a graduate of the St. John’s University School of Law and was admitted to the bar in 2003. According to the Office of Court Administration website, she has not been publicly disciplined. Her guilty plea will subject her to mandatory disbarment.

Assistant District Attorneys James Liander and Yvonne Francis appeared for the Queens District Attorney’s Office.

• • •

“Improper use of an adult’s funds, property, or resources by another individual is elder abuse. This includes, but is not limited to, fraud, embezzlement, forgery, falsifying records, coerced property transfers, or denial of access to assets.”  



To Collect Debts, Nursing Homes Are Seizing Control Over Patients

The need to protect your assets is always at hand. Planning for long-term care with an elder law attorney can help protect your assets for the in home spouse and heirs. Medicaid Planning or Life Care Planning helps to ensure that you or your loved one get the best possible long-term care and the highest possible quality of life, whether at home, in an assisted living facility, or in a nursing home. The following article brings this issue to light.

Article via The New York Times: 

Photo credit: Piotr Redlinski for The New York Times

To Collect Debts, Nursing Homes Are Seizing Control Over Patients.

Lillian Palermo tried to prepare for the worst possibilities of aging. An insurance executive with a Ph.D. in psychology and a love of ballroom dancing, she arranged for her power of attorney and health care proxy to go to her husband, Dino, eight years her junior, if she became incapacitated. And in her 80s, she did.

Mr. Palermo, who was the lead singer in a Midtown nightclub in the 1960s when her elegant tango first caught his eye, now regularly rolls his wife’s wheelchair to the piano at the Catholic nursing home in Manhattan where she ended up in 2010 as dementia, falls and surgical complications took their toll. He sings her favorite songs, feeds her home-cooked Italian food, and pays a private aide to be there when he cannot.

Nursing Home’s Claim Has Priority over State’s Medicaid Claim

A New York appeals court rules that a nursing home that had a claim against the guardianship account of a resident is entitled to reimbursement from the account before the state, which had a claim for Medicaid reimbursement against the resident’s estate. In re: Shannon (N.Y. Sup. Ct., App. Div., 1st Dept., No. 12218, 12219, 92560/08, June 17, 2014).

Brian Raphan, P.C.Eastchester Rehabilitation & Health Care Center applied for a guardian for resident Edna Shannon and also applied for Medicaid on her behalf. The court appointed a guardian, and the state granted Ms. Shannon Medicaid benefits. The nursing home filed a claim with the guardian for services provided Ms. Shannon that were not covered by Medicaid. The court approved the sale of Ms. Shannon’s home, and the money went into the guardianship account.

After Ms. Shannon died, the state filed a claim against her estate for reimbursement of Medicaid expenses. The nursing home argued its claim accrued before the state’s claim because the state did not have a lien against Ms. Shannon’s home. The state argued that it was a preferred creditor, and the trial court agreed. The nursing home appealed.

The New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division, reverses, holding that the nursing home is entitled to reimbursement from the guardianship account before any funds pass to the estate. According to the court, the state had a priority claim only against the estate, while the nursing home’s “claim accrued during the decedent’s lifetime, against the guardianship account, with no competing creditors.” One justice dissents, arguing the state should have had priority.

For the full text of this decision, go to:

For a free download of Medicaid’s Asset Transfer Rules click here.

Regards, Brian

New Federal Regulations May Increase Pay for Home Care Workers, But Could Harm Seniors and People with Disabilities…

A federal regulation scheduled to go into effect on January 1, 2015, could force employers to pay previously exempt caregivers the federal minimum wage and time-and-a-half for overtime.  While this may seem like a good deal for the caregivers, it could result in cutbacks to services for seniors and people with disabilities if states limit caregiver hours in response to the new regulations.

medicaid planning, appeal

Congress initially passed the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) in 1938 to give most workers a guaranteed minimum wage and overtime protection.  The original FLSA did not apply to many domestic workers hired directly by households, so in 1974 Congress amended the FLSA to cover many people who work in private households.  However, the 1974 amendment did not apply to “companionship” workers who assist elderly patients or people with disabilities, and it also stated that live-in domestic workers were not entitled to overtime pay.

In 2013, the Department of Labor issued a final regulation altering these rules for the first time since 1974.  The new regulation, which goes into effect on January 1st, narrows the definition of “companionship” services and requires third-party employers like home health care agencies to meet all minimum wage and overtime laws for all employees.

Under the new rules, an employee qualifies as a “companionship” worker only if he spends less than 20 percent of his work time assisting a senior or person with disabilities with activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living.  In addition, if the worker provides any medically necessary services, then he is not engaged in “companionship” work.  In all cases, if the employee is not considered a companion, then he must be paid the minimum age and must receive overtime pay.  These rules apply only to workers employed by the senior, person with disabilities or her household.  If the worker is employed by a third party, or in many cases if the worker is employed by both the person with disabilities and a third party (like a state agency), then he will always be subject to minimum wage and overtime rules, even if he is a live-in employee who would typically not be subject to overtime rules.

Although the new regulations could mean more money for caregivers who may not currently receive minimum wage or overtime protection, there could also be some negative consequences for consumers and caregivers.  Since many state agencies are now going to be considered third-party employers, they may implement their own regulations limiting the number of hours that caregivers can work in order to avoid being out of compliance with these new federal rules.  This could lead to reduced services for people who need them and fewer hours for caregivers.

According to an advocacy fact sheet from the National Senior Citizens Law Center, only California has addressed these concerns in its 2014-2015 budget, which leaves most seniors and people with disabilities in limbo as the January 1st implementation deadline approaches.

For more on this complicated problem, you can view an assortment of materials on the Department of Labor’s website here and download the National Resource Center for Participant-Directed Services’ toolkit here.

Regards, Brian

Maybe it’s time for a geriatric care manager

Geriatric care

Why do we hear so much about geriatric care management these days? It’s because there are so many benefits they can provide to seniors and care givers. Let’s first clarify the term: A professional Geriatric Care Manager (GCM) is a health and human services specialist who helps families who are caring for older relatives. The GCM is trained and experienced in any of several fields related to care management, including nursing, gerontology, social work, psychology, and logistics of health care and often finances relating to the elderly. They are trained to assess, plan, coordinate, monitor and provide services for the elderly and their families. Although not lawyers, they are often aware of legal issues elders may be soon facing.

The benefits to you, the child or care giver of the elder range from saving time (vetting out various needs), saving money (knowing financial pitfalls of some decisions in advance), making better care decisions (with insight from someone who has seen it all) and most importantly –reducing stress.  The stress of being alone in the decision making process, relief of now being informed about your various options and what may be right for the specific needs of the elder, ranging from doctor decisions, how to provide care, assisted living, home care and nursing care options. Doing it alone takes an enormous amount of time, energy, resources and self reliance.

According to Gladys Harris Geriatric Care Manager of The Olive Group, you may need a Geriatric Care Manager if:

•    A person has limited or no family support available

•    Family has just become involved with helping the individual and needs direction regarding available senior services

•    A person has multiple medical or psychological issues

•    A person is unable to live safely in his / her current environment

•    Family is either “burned out” or confused about care solutions

•    Family has a limited time and / or expertise in dealing with loved one’s chronic care needs

•    Family is at odds regarding care decisions

•    Individual is not pleased with current care providers and requires advocacy

•    Individual is confused regarding his / her own financial and / or legal situation

•    Family needs education and / or direction in dealing with behaviors associated with dementia

Gladys is a recommended resource of ours and helps families and elders in New Jersey. They offer a unique combination of compassion, knowledge, a ‘can-do’ attitude and a wide range of services which also include:

Solution Focused Counseling: Life transitions are a common reason for counseling. We focus on empowering individuals to find solutions in their life by figuring out what a person’s goals are, and supporting them to find ways to achieve those goals.

Care Coordination: Our holistic assessment includes a physical, psychological and social functioning evaluation of the older adult, as well as a home safety inspection. Based on the assessment, we will develop a customized client care plan to identify private and public resources available to support the older adult. We coordinate the support systems needed to keep the older adult safe and happy at home.

Wellness Monitoring: Regular visits with the older adult to help ensure that they receive the best care available. During our visits we ensure older adults are receiving help with things that they want done, computer skills, organize photos, plan family events, etc.

Accessibility Issue Resolution: Aging-in-place often requires making changes to the home to help maintain independence.  This may be de-cluttering, home improvements, home safety inspection

Relocation Services: We support families during transitions from home to another location or facility.   These services include cleaning, de-cluttering, downsizing, and setting up in the older adult’s new home.

Cost savings is also a key component to good geriatric care management. You can learn more about it and find out more about the range of services by clicking here: